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Medical education: ARTICLES

This page contains recommended articles relevant to the topic of Medical Education.

Educational research - Highlighted articles

​Sidhu NS, Edwards M. Deliberate teaching tools for clinical teaching encounters: A critical scoping review and thematic analysis to establish definitional clarity. Med Teach. 2018. Apr 27. [Epub ahead of print]

​Whitehead CR, Kuper A. Faith-based medical education. Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract. 2017 Mar;22(1):1-3.
A retort to the widespread adoption of CBME.

​Bearman M, Tai J, Kent F, Edouard V, Nestel D, Molloy E. What should we teach the teachers? Identifying the learning priorities of clinical supervisors. Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract. 2018 Mar;23(1):29-41.
A study to identify the learning needs of clinical supervisors (analogous to our SOTs). Participants were from various disciplines, based in greater Melbourne. Notably, only 4% were doctors.

​Walsh A, Koppula S, Antao V, Bethune C, Cameron S, Cavett T, Clavet D, Dove M. Preparing teachers for competency-based medical education: Fundamental teaching activities. Med Teach. 2018 Jan;40(1):80-85.
Describes development of a framework to incorporate EPA/CBME tasks and activities into faculty development for teachers. Categorises outcomes for clinical supervisors, teachers outside the clinical setting, and educational leaders.

​Roberts C, et al. Utility of selection methods for specialist medical training: A BEME (best evidence medical education) systematic review: BEME guide no. 45. Med Teach. 2018 Jan;40(1):3-19.
Study done by an Australian group. Systematic review of various selection methods used for specialty training. 

​Corral J, Guiton G, Aagaard E. The Impact of an Academy of Medical Educators on the Culture of an American Health Sciences Campus. Acad Med. 2017 Aug;92(8):1145-1150.
A qualitative study on the impact of a ‘community of practice’ for medical educationists in the US setting (single institution, multi-level, multi-disciplinary) after 5 years of establishment. They showed a positive impact but the siloed nature of departments and campuses has prevented some penetration of the preexisting and overriding culture in which clinical and research missions dominate.

​Irby DM, O'Sullivan PS. Developing and rewarding teachers as educators and scholars: remarkable progress and daunting challenges. Med Educ. 2018 Jan;52(1):58-67.
Discusses faculty development for medical educationists, rewarding excellence in teaching, specifying educator roles, and how to support educators.

​Meyer et al. Tracking the Scholarly Conversation in Health Professions Education: An Introduction to Altmetrics. Acad Med. 2017 Oct;92(10):1501.
Single-page graphical introduction to altmetrics – a method that measures dissemination of an article through non-traditional outlets (e.g. social media).

​Merritt C, Shah B, Santen S. Apprenticeship to Entrustment: A Model for Clinical Education. Acad Med. 2017 Nov;92(11):1646.
Graphical illustration of a model that describes how we learn

Job roles of the 2025 Medical Educator. Simpson et al. JGME 2018; 10(3):243-246.

An attempt at conceptualizing what the role of a Medical Educator might look like in 2025, based on future hard trends in medical education. Lists 5 hard trends: outsourcing of education, technology, learning analytics / big data in education, learner as consumer and co-designer, regulation and alignment. 6 roles identified: diagnostic assessor, content curator (not creator), technology adopter, learner-centred navigator, clinician role model, learning environment designer and implementer.

Adapting feedback to individual residents: an examination of preceptor challenges and approaches. des Ordons et al. JGME 2018; 10(2):168-175.

A study that explored the challenges that supervisors experienced and approaches taken in adapting feedback conversations to trainees.

A toolkit for medical education scholarship. Sullivan. JGME 2018; 10(1):1-5.

An editorial on medical education scholarship – describes types of education scholarship and strategies for starting scholarship.

Improving the improvement process: 5 dimensions of effective program evaluation and improvement. Philibert et al. JGME 2018; 10(1):114-118

Assessment pearls for competency-based medical education. Humphrey-Murto et al. JGME 2017; 9(6):688-691.

Outlines 5 dimensions of effective programme evaluation and improvement.

Results of a flipped classroom teaching approach in anesthesiology residents. Martinelli et al. JGME 2017; 9(4):486-490

Study comparing the flipped classroom approach with traditional teaching in an anaesthesiology residency. Showed that residents had improved knowledge retention after 4 months and that they preferred the flipped classroom approach over traditional lectures.

The clinical educator and complexity: a review. Schoo & Kumar. Clin Teach 2018; 15:287-297.

Uses ‘complexity science’ to outline the role of the clinical educator. Complexity science is the study of the dynamics, conditions, and consequences of interactions within a complex system. The authors generate a conceptual model that situates the clinical educator in a complex system, and lists implications for individuals, departments, and systems.

Case-based discussion: perceptions of feedback. Mohanaruban et al. Clin Teach 2018; 15:126-131.

A study in one UK hospital with medical trainees. Showed that only 19% of assessments were pre-planned, average duration of assessments 6-10 min and feedback was < 5 min. Focus group highlighted barriers to incorporating these elements into everyday practice, primarily time constraints and trainer engagement.

How to write well-defined learning objectives. Chatterjee & Corral. JEPM 2017; 19(4).

A brief review on writing learning objectives.

Developing and validating a tool for measuring the educational environment in clinical anesthesia. Sidhu & Clissold. Can J Anes 2018.

Describes the process of developing an educational environment measure for teaching in the operating theatre using a literature review, modified Delphi approach, and exploratory factor analysis.

Supervised workplace learning in postgraduate training: a realist synthesis. Wiese et al. Med Educ 2018; 52:951-969.

Realist synthesis is an interpretative theory-driven narrative summary of the literature describing how, why and in what circumstances complex social interventions work. It holds that outcomes of an intervention are context-dependent. The paper describes 3 supervisor-trainee processes and their underpinning mechanisms.

Very-short-answer questions: reliability, discrimination, and acceptability. Sam et al. Med Educ 2018; 52:447-455.

A study comparing single-best answer MCQs (aka Type A MCQs) with very short answer questions (VSAQs). The latter in this study were designed essentially as MCQs without the options, where the candidate types in the answer (also computer marked). The two formats has significant positive correlation (p < 0.001, r =  0.83). The computer-based preloaded acceptable answers for VSAQs picked up 80% of correct answers, with the remainder marked during the review process. Computer-based VSAQ marking also had a 0.2% false positive rate. Total time to review 60 VSAQs by 299 students was 96 min. A significant cueing effect was observed for MCQs. Reliability was 0.91 for VSAQs and 0.84-0.85 for MCQs. 80% of students agreed that MCQs were easier but almost 70% agreed or strongly agreed that VSAQs were more representative of how they would be expected to answer questions in clinical practice.

Making the leap to medical education: a qualitative study of medical educators’ experiences. Browne et al. Med Educ 2018; 52:216-226.

A qualitative study on the issues that clinicians face in embarking on a career in medical education.

The struggle to support the transition to medical educator. van den Berg & Lombarts. Med Educ 2018; 52:139-147.

An editorial on the above article.

Deliberate teaching tool for clinical teaching encounters: A critical scoping review and thematic analysis to establish definitional clarity. Sidhu & Edwards. Med Teach 2018 (early online access).

A scoping review on tools and structures used to facilitate clinical teaching (e.g. OMP, SNAPPS, BID, etc). Used a thematic analysis to formulate a consistent name and definition. Identified 46 deliberate teaching tools. The lack of a consistent name/definition meant that the most number of tools included in any previous review was 4. Quality of evaluation studies are variable. Some evidence that transpositioning specific tools to different clinical contexts than which they were designed for results in a loss of validity. No tools have been designed for or evaluated in clinical anaesthesia.

Difficult debriefing situations: a toolbox for simulation educators. Grant et al. Med Teach 2018; 40(7):703-712.

A review of difficult debriefing situations and suggested strategies to manage these situations.

Educational renewal of physician training in Australia and New Zealand: multiple educational innovations in a complex environment. Udemans et al Med Teach 2018; 40(6):627-632.

Describes the RACP’s curriculum revamp, including a new selection process and faculty development.

Test-enhanced learning in health professions education: a systematic review: BEME Guide No. 48. Green et al. Med Teach 2018; 40(4):337-350.

Test-enhanced learning is based on the premise that formative assessments aid learning. The review included 19 studies that reported on 41 outcomes, showing significant benefit for test-enhanced learning compared to studying.

Factors influencing the educational impact of Mini-CEX and DOPS: a qualitative synthesis. Lorwald et al. Med Teach 2018; 40(4):414-420.

Four themes and nine subthemes were identified as factors that influenced the educational impact of Mini-CEX and DOPS.

Recent articles of interest

Last Updated: 28 August 2019

ArticlesSmith AF, Sadler J, Carey C. Anaesthesia and the undergraduate medical curriculum. British Journal of Anaesthesia. 2018;121(5):993-996.

ArticlesDunnGalvin A, Cooper JB, Shorten G, Blum RH. Applied reflective practice in medicine and anaesthesiology. British journal of anaesthesia. 2019;122(5):536-541.

ArticlesBuiles-Aguilar A, Diaz-Gomez JL, Bilotta F. Education in neuroanesthesia and neurocritical care: trends, challenges and advancements. Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology. 2018;31(5):520-525.

ArticlesBeck S, Reich C, Krause D, et al. For beginners in anaesthesia, self-training with an audiovisual checklist improves safety during anaesthesia induction: a randomised, controlled two-centre study. European Journal of Anaesthesiology. 2018;35(7):527-533.

ArticlesEdwards Z, Lucas DN, Gauntlett R. Is training in obstetric critical care adequate? an international comparison. International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia. 2019;37:96-105. 

ArticlesBurton BN, Boulos N, Gabriel RA. Moderately to very competitive: the shifting interest in anesthesiology among medical students. Journal of Clinical Anesthesia. 2019;55:111-112.

ArticlesCurry SE. Teaching medical students clinical anesthesia. Anesthesia and Analgesia. 2018;126(5):1687-1694. 

ArticlesDaly Guris RJ, Duarte SS, Miller CR, Schiavi A, Toy S. Training novice anaesthesiology trainees to speak up for patient safety. British Journal of Anaesthesia. 2019;122(6):767-775.

ArticlesVasilopoulos T, Giordano CR, Hagan JD, Fahy BG. Understanding conflict management styles in anesthesiology residents. Anesthesia and Analgesia. 2018;127(4):1028-1034. 

Articles​Jalloh C, Collins B, Lafleur D, Reimer J, Morrow A. Mapping session learning objectives to exam questions: how to do it and how to apply the results. Medical Teach. 2019 Aug 21:1-7. [Epub ahead of print]

Articles​Scott IM. Beyond 'driving': The relationship between assessment, performance and learning. Medical Education. 2019 Aug 26. [Epub ahead of print]


Articles​Canty D, Barth J, Yang Y, et al. Comparison of learning outcomes for teaching focused cardiac ultrasound to physicians: a supervised human model course versus an elearning guided self- directed simulator course. Journal of Critical Care. 2019;49:38-44. 

Articles​Castanelli DJ, Moonen-van Loon JMW, Jolly B, Weller JM. The reliability of a portfolio of workplace-based assessments in anesthesia training. Canadian Journal of Anesthesia. 2019;66(2):193-200.

ArticlesCastanelli DJ, Weller JM, Chander AR, Molloy EK, Bearman ML. A balancing act: The Supervisor of Training role in anaesthesia education. Anaesth Intensive Care. 2019 Jul 11:310057X19853593. doi: 10.1177/0310057X19853593. [Epub ahead of print]

ArticlesVan Melle E, Frank JR, Holmboe ES, et al. A core components framework for evaluating implementation of competency-based medical education programs. Academic medicine : Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges. 2019;94(7):1002-1009.

ArticlesSteinauer JE, Teherani A, Mangini R, Chien J, ten Cate O, O’Sullivan P. Characterizations of motivation and identity in medical students’ reflections about challenging patient interactions. Medical Teacher. 2019;1-6:1-6. 

ArticlesRogers A, Rayner-Philipson M. Improving practical skills competency in junior doctors. Medical Teacher. 2019;1:1-1.

ArticlesEley D.S, Cloninger C.R, Power D.V, Brooks K.D. The personalities of most medical students are suited to rural practice: implications for rural education program recruitment. Medical Teacher. 2019;(2019).


ArticlesHodges B, Paul R, Ginsburg S. The Ottawa Consensus Group Members. Assessment of professionalism: from where have we come - to where are we going? An update from the Ottawa consensus group on the assessment of professionalism. Medical Teacher. 2019;41(3):249-255.

ArticlesArkin N, Lai C, Kiwakyou LM, et al. What's in a word? Qualitative and quantitative analysis of leadership language in anesthesiology resident feedback. Journal of Graduate Medical Education. 2019;11(1):44-52. 

ArticlesAnkam NS, Bosques G, Sauter C, et al. Competency-based curriculum development to meet the needs of people with disabilities: a call to action. Academic Medicine : Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges. 2019;94(6):781-788.

ArticlesRamani S, McMahon GT, Armstrong EG. Continuing professional development to foster behaviour change: from principles to practice in health professions education. Medical Teacher. 2019;1-8:1-8.

ArticlesPalermo C, King O, Brock T, et al. Setting priorities for health education research: a mixed methods study. Medical Teacher. 2019;1-10:1-10.

ArticlesRoberts C, Wilkinson TJ, Norcini J, Patterson F, Hodges BD. The intersection of assessment, selection and professionalism in the service of patient care. Medical Teacher. 2019;41(3):243-248.

ArticlesSmith A, Carey C, Sadler J, Smith H, Stephens R, Frith C. Undergraduate education in anaesthesia, intensive care, pain, and perioperative medicine: the development of a National Curriculum Framework. Medical Teacher. 2019;41(3):340-346.

ArticlesVarshney V. The need for practice management training in Canadian anesthesiology residency training programs. Canadian Journal of Anesthesia. 2019;(2019). 

ArticlesPiza F, Piza P, Schwartzstein RM. The power of nonverbal communication in medical education. Medical Teacher. 2019;41(4):476-477. 


Educational theory

​Taylor DC, Hamdy H. Adult learning theories: implications for learning and teaching in medical education: AMEE Guide No. 83. Med Teach. 2013 Nov;35(11):e1561-72.

​Skinner B. The science of learning and the art of teaching. Harvard Educ Rev 1954; 24: 86–97.

​Kusurkar R, ten Cate O. AM last page: Education is not filling a bucket, but lighting a fire: self-determination theory and motivation in medical students. Acad Med. 2013 Jun;88(6):904.

​Miller GE. The assessment of clinical skills/competence/performance. Acad Med. 1990 Sep;65(9 Suppl):S63-7. 

​Knowles M. The adult learner: A neglected species. Gulf, Houston, TX 1988.

​Mezirow JE. Fostering critical reflection in adulthood: A guide to transformative and emancipatory learning. Jossey-Bass, San Fransisco, CA 1990.

​Maslow A. Motivation and personality. Harper and Row, New York, London 1954.

​Duvivier RJ, van Dalen J, Muijtjens AM, Moulaert VR, van der Vleuten CP, Scherpbier AJ. The role of deliberate practice in the acquisition of clinical skills. BMC Med Educ. 2011 Dec 6;11:101.

​Schön D. The reflective practitioner: How professionals think in action. Ashgate Publishing Limited, London, 1991.

​Knowles M, Holton EI, Swanson R. The adult learner:the definitive classic in adult education and human resource development. Elsevier, Burlington, MA 2005.

​Kolb D. Experiental learning. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ 1984.

​Bloom BS, Engelhart MD, Furst EJ, Hill WH, Kratwohl DR. Taxonomy of educational objectives: The classification of educational goals. Handbook I, Cognitive domain. Longmans Green, New York 1956.

​Luft J, Ingham H. The JoHari window, a graphic model of interpersonal awareness. UCLA, Proceedings of the western training laboratory in group development. Los Angeles, CA 1955.

​Newble DI, Entwistle NJ. Learning styles and approaches: implications for medical education. Med Educ. 1986 May;20(3):162-75.