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FPM Procedures Endorsement Program curriculum: Category 1 procedures

The FPM Procedures Endorsement Program curriculum defines the required learning, teaching and assessment of FPM endorsees. This guide contains all references in the curriculum, including those available through the ANZCA library.

1A Cervical medial branch block

Barnsley L, Bogduk N. Medial branch blocks are specific for diagnosis of cervical zygapophyseal joint pain. Reg Anesth. 1993; 18(6):343-50.

Barnsley L, Lord S, Wallis B, Bogduk N. False-positive rates of cervical zygapophysial joint blocks. Clin J Pain1993; 9(2):124–30. Request article via Library.

Bogduk N. The clinical anatomy of the cervical dorsal rami. Spine. 1982; 7(4):319–30. Request article via Library.

Cohen SP, Strassels SA, Kurihara C, Forsythe A, Buckenmaier C, McLean B et al. Randomized study assessing the accuracy of cervical facet joint nerve (medial branch) blocks using different injectate volumes. Anesthesiology. 2010; 112(1):144‐52.

Lord SM, Barnsley L, Bogduk N. The utility of comparative local anesthetic blocks versus placebo-controlled blocks for the diagnosis of cervical zygapophysial joint pain. Clin J Pain. 1995; 11(3):208‐13. Request article via Library.

Manchikanti L, Manchikanti KN, Pampati V, Brandon DE, Giordano J. The prevalence of facet-joint-related chronic neck pain in postsurgical and nonpostsurgical patients: A comparative evaluation. Pain Pract. 2008; 8(1):5–10.

Speldewinde GC, Bashford GM, Davidson IR. Diagnostic cervical zygapophyseal joint blocks for chronic cervical pain. Med J Aust. 2001; 174(4):174-6.

1B Lumbar medial branch block

Bogduk N. Clinical and Radiological Anatomy of the Lumbar Spine. 5th ed. Philadelphia (PA): Elsevier; 2012.

Chen AS, Miccio VF, Smith CC, Christolias GC, Blanchard AR. Procedural pain during lumbar medial branch blocks with and without skin wheal anesthesia: a prospective comparative observational study. Pain Med. 2019; 20(4):779‐83.

Kaplan M, Dreyfuss P, Halbrook B, Bogduk N. The ability of lumbar medial branch blocks to anesthetize the zygapophysial joint. A physiologic challenge. Spine. 1998; 23(17):1847‐52. Request article via Library.

Kennedy DJ, Huynh L, Wong J, Mattie R, Levin J, Smuck M et al. Corticosteroid injections into lumbar facet joints: a prospective, randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2018; 97(10):741‐6. Request article via Library.

Van Zundert J, Mekhail N, Vanelderen P, van Kleef M. Diagnostic medial branch blocks before lumbar radiofrequency zygapophysial (facet) joint denervation: benefit or burden? Anesthesiology. 2010; 113(2):276‐8.

1C Lumbar transforaminal epidural injection

Benzon HT, Chew TL, McCarthy RJ, Benzon HA, Walega DR. Comparison of the particle sizes of different steroids and the effect of dilution: a review of the relative neurotoxicities of the steroids. Anesthesiology. 2007;106(2):331‐8.

Bogduk N. Clinical and Radiological Anatomy of the Lumbar Spine. 5th ed. Philadelphia (PA): Elsevier; 2012.

Denis I, Claveau G, Filiatrault M, Fugère F, Fortin L. Randomized double-blind controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of lumbar transforaminal epidural injections of particulate and nonparticulate corticosteroids for lumbosacral radicular pain. Pain Med. 2015; 16(9):1697‐708.

Ghahreman A, Ferch R, Bogduk N. The efficacy of transforaminal injection of steroids for the treatment of lumbar radicular pain. Pain Med. 2010; 11(8):1149-68.

Ghai B, Bansal D, Kay JP, Vadaje KS, Wig J. Transforaminal versus parasagittal interlaminar epidural steroid injection in low back pain with radicular pain: a randomized, double-blind, active-control trial. Pain Physician. 2014; 17(4):277‐90.

Kamble PC, Sharma A, Singh V, Natraj B, Devani D, Khapane V. Outcome of single level disc prolapse treated with transforaminal steroid versus epidural steroid versus caudal steroids. Eur Spine J. 2016; 25(1):217‐21. Request article via Library.

Smith CC, McCormick ZL, Mattie R, MacVicar J, Duszynski B, Stojanovic MP. The effectiveness of lumbar transforaminal injection of steroid for the treatment of radicular pain: a comprehensive review of the published data. Pain Med. 2020; 21(3):472‐87.

Vad VB, Bhat AL, Lutz GE, Cammisa F. Transforaminal epidural steroid injections in lumbosacral radiculopathy: a prospective randomized study. Spine. 2002; 27(1):11‐6. Request article via Library.

1D Caudal epidural injection

Aggarwal A, Aggarwal A, Harjeet, Sahni D. Morphometry of sacral hiatus and its clinical relevance in caudal epidural block. Surg Radiol Anat. 2009; 31(10):793‐800. Request article via Library.

Manchikanti L, Pakanati RR, Pampati V. Comparison of three routes of epidural steroid injections in low back pain. Pain Digest 1999; 9:277-85. Request article via Library.

Manchikanti L, Cash KA, Pampati V, McManus CD, Damron KS. Evaluation of fluoroscopically guided caudal epidural injections. Pain Physician. 2004; 7(1):81‐92.

Manchikanti L, Singh V, Cash KA, Pampati V, Datta S. Management of pain of post lumbar surgery syndrome: one-year results of a randomized, double-blind, active controlled trial of fluoroscopic caudal epidural injections. Pain Physician. 2010; 13(6):509‐21.

Manchikanti L, Singh V, Cash KA, Pampati V, Damron KS, Boswell MV. A randomized, controlled, doubleblind trial of fluoroscopic caudal epidural injections in the treatment of lumbar disc herniation and radiculitis. Spine. 2011; 36(23):1897‐1905.

Parr AT, Manchikanti L, Hameed H, Conn A, Manchikanti KN, Benyamin RM et al. Caudal epidural injections in the management of chronic low back pain: a systematic appraisal of the literature. Pain Physician. 2012;15(3):E159‐98.

1E Sacroiliac joint injection

Kennedy DJ, Engel A, Kreiner DS, Nampiaparampil D, Duszynski B, MacVicar J. Fluoroscopically guided diagnostic and therapeutic intra-articular sacroiliac joint injections: a systematic review. Pain Med. 2015;16(8):1500‐18.

King W, Ahmed SU, Baisden J, Patel N, Kennedy DJ, Duszynski B et al. Diagnosis and treatment of posterior sacroiliac complex pain: a systematic review with comprehensive analysis of the published data [published correction appears in Pain Med. 2015 Nov;16(11):2216. Duszynski, Belinda [added]]. Pain Med. 2015;16(2):257‐65.

MacVicar J, Kreiner DS, Duszynski B, Kennedy DJ. Appropriate use criteria for fluoroscopically guided diagnostic and therapeutic sacroiliac interventions: results from the spine intervention society convened multispecialty collaborative. Pain Med. 2017; 18(11):2081‐95.

Roberts SL, Stout A, Loh EY, Swain N, Dreyfuss P, Agur AM. Anatomical comparison of radiofrequency ablation techniques for sacroiliac joint pain. Pain Med. 2018; 19(10):1924‐43.

Speldewinde GC. Successful thermal neurotomy of the painful sacroiliac ligament/joint complex-a comparison of two techniques. Pain Med. 2020; 21(3):561‐69.

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