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FPM Procedures Endorsement Program curriculum: Category 2 procedures

The FPM Procedures Endorsement Program curriculum defines the required learning, teaching and assessment of FPM endorsees. This guide contains all references in the curriculum, including those available through the ANZCA library.

2A Cervical sympathetic (stellate ganglion) block

Elias M. Cervical sympathetic and stellate ganglion blocks. Pain Physician. 2000; 3(3):294‐304.

Guttuso T Jr. Stellate ganglion block for treating hot flashes: a viable treatment option or sham procedure? Maturitas. 2013; 76(3):221‐4.

Lipov E, Kelzenberg B. Sympathetic system modulation to treat post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): a review of clinical evidence and neurobiology. J Affect Disord. 2012; 142(1-3):1‐5.

McDonnell JG, Finnerty O, Laffey JG. Stellate ganglion blockade for analgesia following upper limb surgery. Anaesthesia. 2011; 66(7):611‐14.

O'Connell NE, Wand BM, Gibson W, Carr DB, Birklein F, Stanton TR. Local anaesthetic sympathetic blockade for complex regional pain syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016; 7(7):CD004598. Published 2016 Jul 28.

Othman AH, Zaky AH. Management of hot flushes in breast cancer survivors: comparison between stellate ganglion block and pregabalin. Pain Med. 2014; 15(3):410‐17.

Serpell, M. The role of the sympathetic nervous system and pain. Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine. 2008; 9(2):75-8.

Straube S, Derry S, Moore RA, Cole P. Cervico-thoracic or lumbar sympathectomy for neuropathic pain and complex regional pain syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013; 2013(9):CD002918. Published 2013 Sep 2.

Summers MR, Nevin RL. Stellate ganglion block in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder: a review of historical and recent literature. Pain Pract. 2017; 17(4):546‐53.

2B Lumbar sympathetic block

Bogduk N. Clinical and Radiological Anatomy of the Lumbar Spine. 5th ed. Philadelphia (PA): Elsevier; 2012.

Hord ED, Cohen SP, Cosgrove GR, Ahmed SU, Vallejo R, Chang Y et al. The predictive value of sympathetic block for the success of spinal cord stimulation. Neurosurgery. 2003; 53(3):626‐33. Request article via Library.

Nesargikar PN, Ajit MK, Eyers PS, Nichols BJ, Chester JF. Lumbar chemical sympathectomy in peripheral vascular disease: does it still have a role? Int J Surg. 2009; 7(2):145-9.

O'Connell NE, Wand BM, Gibson W, Carr DB, Birklein F, Stanton TR. Local anaesthetic sympathetic blockade for complex regional pain syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016; 7(7):CD004598. Published 2016 Jul 28.

Serpell, M. The role of the sympathetic nervous system and pain. Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine. 2008; 9(2):75-8.

Straube S, Derry S, Moore RA, Cole P. Cervico-thoracic or lumbar sympathectomy for neuropathic pain and complex regional pain syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013; 2013(9):CD002918. Published 2013 Sep 2.

Zechlinski JJ, Hieb RA. Lumbar sympathetic neurolysis: how to and when to use? Tech Vasc Interv Radiol. 2016; 19(2):163‐8.

2C Coeliac Plexus Block

Arcidiacono PG, Calori G, Carrara S, McNicol ED, Testoni PA. Celiac plexus block for pancreatic cancer pain in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011; 2011(3):CD007519. Published 2011 Mar 16.

O'Connell NE, Wand BM, Gibson W, Carr DB, Birklein F, Stanton TR. Local anaesthetic sympathetic blockade for complex regional pain syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016; 7(7):CD004598. Published 2016 Jul 28.

Rana MV, Candido KD, Raja O, Knezevic NN. Celiac plexus block in the management of chronic abdominal pain. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2014; 18(2):394.

Serpell M. The role of the sympathetic nervous system and pain. Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine. 2008; 9(2):75-8.

Straube S, Derry S, Moore RA, Cole P. Cervico-thoracic or lumbar sympathectomy for neuropathic pain and complex regional pain syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013; 2013(9):CD002918. Published 2013 Sep 2.

Zhong W, Yu Z, Zeng JX, et al. Celiac plexus block for treatment of pain associated with pancreatic cancer: a meta-analysis. Pain Pract. 2014; 14(1):43‐51.

Zhang CL, Zhang TJ, Guo YN, Yang LQ, He MW, Shi JZ et al. Effect of neurolytic celiac plexus block guided by computerized tomography on pancreatic cancer pain. Dig Dis Sci. 2008; 53(3):856‐860.

2D Cervical medial branch radiofrequency neurotomy

Engel A, Rappard G, King W, Kennedy D. The effectiveness and risks of fluoroscopically-guided cervical medial branch thermal radiofrequency neurotomy: a systemic review with comprehensive analysis of published data. Pain Med. 2016 ; 17(4): 658-69.

Govind J, King W, Bailey B, Bogduk N. Radiofrequency neurotomy for the treatment of third occipital headache. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2003; 74(1):88‐93.

Lord S., McDonald G, Bogduk N. Percutaneous radiofrequency neurotomy of the cervical medial branches: A validated treatment for cervical zygapophyseal joint pain. Neurosurg Q. 1998; 8(4):288–308. Request from Library.

Lord SM, Barnsley L, Wallis BJ, McDonald GJ, Bogduk N. Percutaneous radio-frequency neurotomy for chronic cervical zygapophyseal-joint pain. N Engl J Med. 1996; 335(23):1721‐1726.

MacVicar J, Borowczyk JM, MacVicar AM, Loughnan BM, Bogduk N. Cervical medial branch radiofrequency neurotomy in New Zealand. Pain Med. 2012; 13(5):647‐654.

McDonald GJ, Lord SM, Bogduk N. Long-term follow-up of patients treated with cervical radiofrequency neurotomy for chronic neck pain. Neurosurgery. 1999; 45(1):61‐8. Request article via Library.

Speldewinde G. Outcomes of percutaneous zygapophysial and sacroiliac joint neurotomy in a community setting. Pain Med. 2011; 12(2):209-18.

2E Suprascapular radiofrequency neurotomy

Chang KV, Hung CY, Wang TG, Yang RS, Sun WZ, Lin CP. Ultrasound-guided proximal suprascapular nerve block with radiofrequency lesioning for patients with malignancy-associated recalcitrant shoulder pain. J Ultrasound Med. 2015; 34(11):2099-105.

Ergonenc T, Beyaz SG. Effects of ultrasound-guided suprascapular nerve pulsed radiofrequency on chronic shoulder pain. Med Ultrason. 2018; 20(4):461‐6.

Esparza-Miñana JM, Mazzinari G. Adaptation of an ultrasound-guided technique for pulsed radiofrequency on axillary and suprascapular nerves in the treatment of shoulder pain. Pain Med. 2019; 20(8):1547‐50.

Huang CC, Tsao SL, Cheng CY, Hsin MT, Chen CM. Treating frozen shoulder with ultrasound-guided pulsed mode radiofrequency lesioning of the suprascapular nerve: two cases. Pain Med. 2010; 11(12):1837‐40.

Jang JS, Choi HJ, Kang SH, Yang JS, Lee JJ, Hwang SM. Effect of pulsed radiofrequency neuromodulation on clinical improvements in the patients of chronic intractable shoulder pain. J Korean Neurosurg Soc. 2013; 54(6):507‐10.

Simopoulos TT, Nagda J, Aner MM. Percutaneous radiofrequency lesioning of the suprascapular nerve for the management of chronic shoulder pain: a case series. J Pain Res. 2012; 5:91‐97.

Tran J, Peng P, Agur A. Evaluation of suprascapular nerve radiofrequency ablation protocols: 3D cadaveric needle placement study. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2020: in press as at 21 May 2020.

Wu YT, Ho CW, Chen YL, Li TY, Lee KC, Chen LC. Ultrasound-guided pulsed radiofrequency stimulation of the suprascapular nerve for adhesive capsulitis: a prospective, randomized, controlled trial. Anesth Analg. 2014; 119(3):686‐92.

2F Lumbar medial branch radiofrequency neurotomy

Bogduk N. Clinical and Radiological Anatomy of the Lumbar Spine. 5th ed. Philadelphia (PA): Elsevier; 2012.

Conger A, Burnham T, Salazar F, Tate Q, Golish M, Petersen R et al. The effectiveness of radiofrequency ablation of medial branch nerves for chronic lumbar facet joint syndrome in patients selected by guideline concordant dual comparative medial branch blocks. Pain Med. 2020; 21(5):902‐9.

de Campos TF. Low back pain and sciatica in over 16s: assessment and management NICE Guideline [NG59]. J Physiother. 2017; 63(2):120.

Gazelka HM, Welch TL, Nassr A, Lamer TJ. Safety of lumbar spine radiofrequency procedures in the presence of posterior pedicle screws: technical report of a cadaver study. Pain Med. 2015; 16(5):877‐80.

Juch JNS, Maas ET, Ostelo RWJG, Groeneweg JG, Kallewaard JW, Koes BW et al. Effect of Radiofrequency Denervation on Pain Intensity Among Patients With Chronic Low Back Pain: The Mint Randomized Clinical Trials [published correction appears in JAMA. 2017 Sep 26;318(12):1188]. JAMA. 2017; 318(1):68‐81.

Lamer TJ, Smith J, Hoelzer BC, Mauck WD, Qu W, Gazelka HM. Safety of lumbar spine radiofrequency procedures in patients who have posterior spinal hardware. Pain Med. 2016; 17(9):1634‐7.

Maas ET, Ostelo RW, Niemisto L, Jousimaa J, Hurri H, Malmivaara A et al. Radiofrequency denervation for chronic low back pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015; (10):CD008572. Published 2015 Oct 23.

MacVicar J, Borowczyk JM, MacVicar AM, Loughnan BM, Bogduk N. Cervical medial branch radiofrequency neurotomy in New Zealand. Pain Med. 2012; 13(5):647‐654.

Son JH, Kim SD, Kim SH, Lim DJ, Park JY. The efficacy of repeated radiofrequency medial branch neurotomy for lumbar facet syndrome. J Korean Neurosurg Soc. 2010; 48(3):240‐243.

2G Sacroiliac joint radiofrequency neurotomy

Kennedy DJ, Engel A, Kreiner DS, Nampiaparampil D, Duszynski B, MacVicar J. Fluoroscopically guided diagnostic and therapeutic intra-articular sacroiliac joint injections: a systematic review. Pain Med. 2015; 16(8):1500‐18.

King W, Ahmed SU, Baisden J, Patel N, Kennedy DJ, Duszynski B et al. Diagnosis and treatment of posterior sacroiliac complex pain: a systematic review with comprehensive analysis of the published data [published correction appears in Pain Med. 2015 Nov;16(11):2216. Duszynski, Belinda [added]]. Pain Med. 2015;16(2):257‐65.

MacVicar J, Kreiner DS, Duszynski B, Kennedy DJ. Appropriate use criteria for fluoroscopically guided diagnostic and therapeutic sacroiliac interventions: results from the spine intervention society convened multispecialty collaborative. Pain Med. 2017; 18(11):2081‐95.

Roberts SL, Stout A, Loh EY, Swain N, Dreyfuss P, Agur AM. Anatomical comparison of radiofrequency ablation techniques for sacroiliac joint pain. Pain Med. 2018; 19(10):1924‐43.

Speldewinde GC. Successful thermal neurotomy of the painful sacroiliac ligament/joint complex-a comparison of two techniques. Pain Med. 2020; 21(3):561‐69.

2H Femoral and obturator nerve radiofrequency neurotomy

Chye CL, Liang CL, Lu K, Chen YW, Liliang PC. Pulsed radiofrequency treatment of articular branches of femoral and obturator nerves for chronic hip pain. Clin Interv Aging. 2015; 10:569-74.

Deer T, Pope J, Lamer T, Provenzano D (eds.). Deer's treatment of pain: an illustrated guide for practitioners. Cham: Springer; 2019

Gupta G, Radhakrishna M, Etheridge P, Besemann M, Finlayson RJ. Radiofrequency denervation of the hip joint for pain management: case report and literature review. US Army Med Dep J. 2014; 41‐51. Request article via Library.

Locher S, Burmeister H, Böhlen T, Eichenberger U, Stoupis C, Moriggl B et al. Radiological anatomy of the obturator nerve and its articular branches: basis to develop a method of radiofrequency denervation for hip joint pain. Pain Med. 2008; 9(3):291-8.

Racz GB, Noe CE (eds.). Techniques of neurolysis. 2nd ed. Cham: Springer; 2016.

Short AJ, Barnett JJG, Gofeld M, et al. Anatomic study of innervation of the anterior hip capsule: implication for image-guided intervention. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2018; 43(2):186‐92.

Stone J, Matchett G. Combined ultrasound and fluoroscopic guidance for radiofrequency ablation of the obturator nerve for intractable cancer-associated hip pain. Pain Physician. 2014; 17(1):E83-7.

Wright RE, Allan KJ, Kraft M, Holley BR. Radiofrequency ablation using a novel multi-tined expandable electrode: device description and research study. In: Alo K, Deer T, Krames E, Levy R (eds.) Minimally Invasive Surgery for Pain, Volume II [Internet]. 2012; 1(1): 41-53.

2I Genicular nerve radiofrequency neurotomy

Ajrawat P, Radomski L, Bhatia A, Peng P, Nath N, Gandhi R. Radiofrequency procedures for the treatment of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review. Pain Med. 2020; 21(2):333‐48.

Choi WJ, Hwang SJ, Song JG, Leem JG, Kang YU, Park PH, et al. Radiofrequency treatment relieves chronic knee osteoarthritis pain: a double-blind randomized controlled trial. Pain. 2011; 152(3):481‐7.

Fonkoue L, Behets CW, Steyaert A, Kouame Kouassi JE, Detrembleur C, De Waroux BLP, et al. Accuracy of fluoroscopic-guided genicular nerve blockade: a need for revisiting anatomical landmarks [epub ahead of print, 2019 Aug 26]. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2019; 44:950-8.

Roberts SL, Stout A, Dreyfuss P. Review of Knee Joint Innervation: Implications for Diagnostic Blocks and Radiofrequency Ablation. Pain Med. 2020; 21(5):922‐38.

2J Dorsal root ganglion pulsed radiofrequency treatment - thoracic and lumbar

Bicket M, Benzon H, Cohen S. Transforaminal epidural steroid injections and selective nerve root blocks. In: Benzon H, Raja S, Li S, Fishman S, Cohen S, Hurley R (eds.). Essentials of pain medicine. 4th ed. Philadelphia (PA): Elsevier/Saunders; 2018. p.573-84

Bogduk N. Clinical and Radiological Anatomy of the Lumbar Spine. 5th ed. Philadelphia (PA): Elsevier; 2012.

De M, Mohan VK, Bhoi D, Talawar P, Kumar A, Garg B et al. Transforaminal epidural injection of local anesthetic and dorsal root ganglion pulsed radiofrequency treatment in lumbar radicular pain: a randomized, triple-blind, active-control trial. Pain Pract. 2020; 20(2):154‐67.

Deer T, Pope J, Lamer T, Provenzano D (eds.). Deer's treatment of pain: an illustrated guide for practitioners.Cham: Springer; 2019

Kim SJ, Park SJ, Yoon DM, Yoon KB, Kim SH. Predictors of the analgesic efficacy of pulsed radiofrequency treatment in patients with chronic lumbosacral radicular pain: a retrospective observational study. J Pain Res. 2018; 11:1223‐30.

Marliana A, Yudianta S, Subagya DW, Setyopranoto I, Setyaningsih I, Tursina Srie C, et al. The efficacy of pulsed radiofrequency intervention of the lumbar dorsal root ganglion in patients with chronic lumbar radicular pain. Med J Malaysia. 2020; 75(2):124‐129.

Vuka I, Vučić K, Repić T, Ferhatović Hamzić L, Sapunar D, Puljak L. Electrical stimulation of dorsal root ganglion in the context of pain: a systematic review of in vitro and in vivo animal model studies. Neuromodulation. 2018; 21(3):213‐24. Request article via Library.

Vuka I, Došenović S, Marciuš T, Ferhatović Hamzić L, Vučić K, Sapunar D, et al. Efficacy and safety of pulsed radiofrequency as a method of dorsal root ganglia stimulation for treatment of non-neuropathic pain: a systematic review. BMC Anesthesiol. 2020; 20(1):105. Published 2020 May 4.

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